When Marx told the Lassalleans in the critique of the Gotha program, that labor was not, as the vulgar socialists were wont to hold, the sole source of social wealth,10 then he thereby philosophically expressed, in a period in which he had already left behind the official philosophical thematic, no less than the fact that labor is not to be hypostasized in any form, in the industriousness of hands so little as in intellectual production. The thought without need, which wants nothing, would be nugatory; but thinking out of the need becomes confused, if the need is conceived merely subjectively. Doubtless the material content is in the neo-romantic poem, the face of someone who steps on "other planets", the allegory of something innervated, of ecstasy and elevation reminiscent of Maximinus. The preponderance [Vorrang] of the total over the appearance is to be grasped in the appearance, over which what tradition counts as the world-spirit dominates; not taken from this tradition, which is in the widest sense Platonic, as sacred. It is not supposed to prepare the fantasm of a whole. What once wished to overtake dogma and tutelage through self-certainty, became the social insurance policy of a cognition, which does allow anything to Fiction of Positive Freedom 230-231 Freedom is solely to be grasped in determinate negation, in accordance with the concrete form of unfreedom. In the construction of the entire antithetics, freedom and causality intersect. Not even its abstract negation deserves thinking. - The determination of the transcendental as what is necessary, which conjoins itself to functionality and universality, expresses the principle of the self-preservation of the species. 4 Happiness and Waiting in Vain 366-368 What metaphysical experience would be, to those who eschew the reduction of this to presumably religious primal experiences, is closest to how Proust imagined it, in the happiness promised from names of villages like Otterbach, Watterbach, Reuenthal, Monbrunn. To that consciousness nothing, which would be outside, appears any more; in a certain sense there is in fact nothing more outside, nothing not influenced by the total mediation. The individual meanwhile is left with nothing more of what is moral, than what Kant's moral theory, which conceded inclination to animals, but not respect,63 has only contempt for: to attempt to live so, that one may believe to have been a good animal. That the generality is not anything merely thrown over individuality but would be its innervated substance, is not to be reduced to the platitude of the encompassing nature of valid human morality, but would need to be traced to the center of the individual mode of conduct, especially in the character; in that psychology, which Hegel, as one with popular bias, accuses of a contingency which Freud meanwhile refuted. What some prefer to call angst and ennoble as an existential, is claustrophobia in the world: in the closed system. In the shadows of the incompletion of its emancipation, the bourgeois consciousness had to fear being cashiered by a more progressive class; it suspected that, because it was not the entire freedom, it only produced the travesty of such; that is why it expanded its autonomy theoretically into the system, which at the same time took on the likeness of its compulsory mechanisms. Formalization is not something more neutral in contrast to the class-relationship. That is why Sartre put everything on the moment, which was not permitted by the ruling praxis; spontaneity, in the language of philosophy. If in fact the earth was the only heavenly body inhabited by rational beings, then that would be a metaphysicum [Latin: something metaphysical], whose idiocy would denounce metaphysics; in the end human beings would really be the gods, only under the bane, which prevents them from know it - and what gods! But what is authentic, which he misses, recoils instantly into positivity, authenticity as a conduct of consciousness which, by emigrating from the profane, powerlessly imitates the theological habitus of the ancient doctrine of essences. The more the particular sciences confiscated of its content - as psychology did to the genesis of the character, over which even Kant made wild guesses - the more embarrassingly do philosophemes on the freedom of the will degenerate into declamations. 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